Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary India

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Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary Maharashtra

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Location: at the headwaters of the Godavari river, 35 km east of Nasik, Nasik district, Maharashtra.
Area: 10012.7 ha

Description of site: A large water-storage reservoir (1500 - 2000 ha) created by the construction of a dam at the confluence of the Godavari and Kadva rivers in 1907. The reservoir fills with monsoon run-off during July-September and may overflow in years of heavy rainfall. Water is released from the reservoir at fixed intervals from October to April. Huge amounts of silt have been deposited over the last 80 years; consequently much of the lake is now marshland or very shallow water. There are three large islands covered with reed-beds and sedge marshes. As the dry season progresses, the Godavari river becomes the main watercourse once again. An ancient temple (Madhameshwar) is situated on the banks of Godavari river below the dam. The presence of about 23 small lakes within a radius of 25 km of the reservoir adds to the overall importance of the region

Climatic conditions: Semi-arid, tropical monsoon climate with a average annual rainfall of 500 mm. Summer temperatures range from 25°C to 43°C, winter temperatures from 4°C to 26°C

Principal vegetation: Almeida (1983) lists 463 species of plants, including over 80 species of aquatic plants; The latter include Ipomoea fistulosa, I. aquatics, Hygrophila auriculata, Phyla nodiflora, Polygonum glabrum, P. plebeium, Rumex dentatus, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis. Ottelia alismoides, Zeuzine strateomatica, Eichhornia crassipes, Cryptocorine spiralis, Typha angustata, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton perfoliata, P. pectinate, P. crispus, Cyperus spp., Echiinochloa colnum, Paspalidium flavidum, P. geniculatum, Marsilea minuta and Azolla pinnate. The surrounding areas are intensively cultivated for sugarcane, wheat, jawar, and vineyards, and the landscape is almost devoid of trees

Fauna: Over 20 species of fish have been recorded in the reservoir, including Ompok bimaculatus, Rasbora daniconius, Pontius ticto, P. serene, P. fraseri, P. amphibius, Gawa mullya, Labeo calbasu, L. boggut, Chela clupeoides, Mystus cavasius, Barilius bendelisis, Cirrhina reba, Aspidoparis moray, Danio malabaricus, Mastacembelus armatus, Channa range and Parasilorhynchus prateri. At least 235 species of bird are known to occur, of which 85% are migratory. The reservoir is particularly important as a staging and wintering area for migratory waterfowl. Up to 15,000 waterfowl have been recorded in winter, and even more are reported to be present during the migration seasons.

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